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- The main indicators of semen
- What is oligospermia
- The reasons
- Impact on fertility
Oligospermia: what it is in men, causes and treatment of oligozoospermia 1, 2, 3 degrees
Oligospermia as the main cause of male infertility. Causes of pathology, methods of diagnosis and treatment of medicines and folk remedies. 1,2 and 3 degree of oligozoospermia – what is it.
Oligospermia – what it is, causes of male infertility
Oligospermia (oligospermia) in men is the pathological condition of the male reproductive system, which is characterized by a general decrease in the amount of sperm secreted during ejaculation, which ultimately causes infertility. This disease is characterized not only by a decrease in the volume of ejaculate (less than one and a half ml) but also by a low concentration of sperm in it (less than 20 million), which causes male infertility. According to statistics, in the Russian Federation about 15% of marriages are fruitless. The male component of infertility is estimated at 40-50%.
The content of the article
- The main indicators of semen
- What is oligospermia
- Sperm count rates
- Degree oligospermia
- The reasons
- Impact on fertility
- Drug treatment
- Treatment of folk remedies
The main indicators of semen
When conducting ejaculate studies (spermograms), each medical clinic uses its own standards. Spermograms approved by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2010 are taken as reference criteria.
In 2010, spermograms began to apply new standards in the processing of established results. For example, amendments were made for the rates of active motility and sperm concentration in the ejaculate, as well as for the percentage ratio of the number of normal spermatozoa.
In the spermogram of a healthy man capable of reproducing offspring, in the complete absence of pathologies of the reproductive system, a certain set of basic parameters should be indicated:
- the volume of a single portion of ejaculate – from 2 to 4 ml;
- pH – pH (7.2);
- the number of sperm in ml – from 20 million;
- the total number of sperm in the ejaculate – more than 40 million;
- the percentage of motile sperm cells is 50% or more (for groups A + B), or 25% or more for group A (sperm must maintain a forward direction of movement for 1 hour after ejaculation);
- viable sperm should be in excess of 50% of the total cell number;
- the number of leukocyte cells should not exceed 1 million in 1 ml of ejaculate;
- the content of antisperm antibodies should not exceed 50% of the total number of spermatozoa that have antigens to antisperm antibodies.
What is oligospermia
Let us consider in more detail what is oligospermia in men. Oligospermia is a condition of male reproductive function in which the number and concentration of sperm decreases during ejaculation. There is a decrease in ejaculate volume: this indicator becomes less than 1.5 ml. A similar parameter for a man capable of conceiving is approximately 2.5 ml.
The reasons occurrence multiple, to by him can carry the following :
- long lasting sexual abstinence ;
- excess sexual activity ;
- psycho-emotional stress;
- violations of diet and diet;
- partial influence on the decrease in the number of sperm have hot baths, visits to baths and saunas, tight clothing and underwear;
- the negative effects of a variety of external and anabolic steroids for sale production parameters, such as radiation, chemicals, drugs, alcohol;
- inflammations localized in the prostate, etc.
These factors can be eliminated or leveled (neutralized) their action. Therefore, in the case when a man has no diseases that can worsen the quality of sperm, it is possible to fully restore the male fertile function.
Among sets diverse factors , calling appearance given fertile pathologies , it is advisable highlight those of them which give in only medicamentous corrections :
- Diseases contributing to the development of endocrine pathologies. Among them it is necessary to single out such reproductive pathology as hypogonadism. This disease is characterized by a sharp reduction in the synthesis of the main androgen.
- Broadcast this forms pathologies by inheritance .
- Pathology of the seminal glands (varicocele).
- Infectious diseases (paraveneric).
Sperm count rates
Fertility success rates will be higher given the highest sperm concentration in the ejaculate. With a decrease in the volume of ejaculate secreted in parallel, a decrease in the number of sperm cells occurs, and, consequently, the chances of successful conception are reduced.
The current rate of release of ejaculate takes into account its volume. This is about 2 ml (variation indicator 1.5-5 ml). Success in the fertilization of eggs is guaranteed when more than 40 million active-mobile forms of sperm are contained in the ejaculate (some sources speak of a figure of 60 million).
Of particular note is that in recent decades, the number of men diagnosed with oligospermia has increased dramatically. This is observed primarily in the industrialized countries of Western Europe and North America. The main hypothesis of the widespread prevalence of this pathology is ecological. Experts believe that there are many chemical reprotoxicants in the environment – dioxins, dibenzofurans. These are very persistent organic compounds that are structural analogues of testosterone – the male sex hormone. Since the late 40s of the 20th century, the rate of decline in the concentration of spermatozoa is about 1% per year.
A large role is assigned to such a parameter of the sperm, as the concentration of male germ cells. It is well known that only one viable sperm cell is involved in fertilization and subsequent pregnancy. The main explanation of this fact is the negative impact on the sperm of the vaginal acidic environment: they lose the ability to actively move and die. For this reason, to ensure that the egg can be reached by at least one sperm cell, which is able to overcome various adverse factors, the concentration of sperm in the ejaculate and its volume should be sufficient. Naturally, the chances of successful fertilization will be significantly less in individuals with oligospermia.
The study of spermograms – the main diagnostic method, which allows to determine the decrease in the number of spermatozoa characteristic of oligospermia. In a healthy normal semen in 1 ml should be more than 25 million sperm. At lower concentrations, oligospermia is diagnosed.
WITH considering criteria WHO ( 2010 ), oligospermia it happens three degrees :
- The first degree of oligospermia (oligozoospermia of the 1st degree) is established in a situation where in 1 ml of sperm in the ejaculate the concentration of spermatozoa is less than 15 million.
- The second degree of oligospermia is established at low levels of sperm count: no more than 10 million germ cells are present in 1 ml.
- The third stage of oligospermia is established at very low levels of sperm concentration – less than 5 million spermatozoa are found in 1 ml of ejaculate.
Reducing the number of ejaculate and the number of male germ cells is considered as a result of pathological changes in the organs responsible for the formation and elimination of seminal fluid. The formation and maturation of sperm occurs in the testicles. It is for this reason that the development of this form of male infertility is considered as the consequences of pathological processes in these organs.
Most often meet the following the reasons development oligospermia :
- congenital abnormality;
- acquired pathology;
- due to the absence of the seminal gland (s);
- pathology of the spermatic cord (varicocele);
- abnormal development of the seminal glands;
- due to systemic connective tissue diseases;
- genetic changes (mutations);
- inflammatory processes of the seminal glands;
- hormonal dysfunction (testosterone production disorders);
- pathologies associated with taking medication, anabolic steroids.
It should be remembered about the possibility of obtaining false results when taking sperm. Common causes are visiting saunas or baths directly in front of the spermogram: the seed glands overheat.
Sperm from the male genital glands is transported outside through the vas deferens. In this case, there may be violations of the process of sperm withdrawal due to blockage of the vas deferens. It can occur as a result of the formation of tumors or cystic structures in the vas deferens. A similar mechanism of occurrence of obstruction exists when the genital tract is infected, in which changes in the normal tissue structure and their legal anabolic steroids edema often occur.
The cause of oligozoospermia is often mixed with simultaneous exposure to several pathogenic factors. The most common forms of this pathology (approximately 40%), arising from the impact of unidentified factors. In this case, it becomes impossible to determine the cause of the decline in the number of male germ cells in the semen. Nevertheless, such forms of oligospermia often manifest themselves in people who neglect the diet and also with obesity.
A healthy lifestyle and the absence of bad habits contribute to the preservation of male power.
Impact on fertility
The relationship of the quality characteristics of seminal fluid with male fertility is very close. For the onset of pregnancy, it is necessary to enter into the vagina the optimal amount of sperm (more than 1 ml) with certain qualitative parameters of sperm. Although in men with oligospermia, the ejaculate contains less sperm, but when there is a high motility of sperm, there is a high probability of a successful conception. It is just that such representatives of a strong half of humanity have a lower probability of successful fertilization, compared with healthy ones.
Assistive technologies in the field of reproduction play an important role: ICSI (IntraCytoplasmic Sperm Injection – intracytoplasmic sperm injection), IVF (in vitro fertilization), artificial insemination. If a man has full-fledged spermatozoa, then there is every chance of successful fertilization.
It is well known that a decrease in the volume of ejaculate is almost always associated with low mobility and an increase in the number of defective forms of spermatozoa (hypospermia).
For men diagnosed with oligospermia, there is good news: according to statistics, even with strongly pronounced forms of the disease and lack of treatment with drugs, there is a probability (approximately 5%) to conceive a child.
If the treatment is carried out correctly, the probability of fertilization is high enough. The exceptions are cases when these violations of reproduction are an incurable pathology.
A significant role is played by assistive technologies in the field of reproduction: ICSI, IVF, artificial insemination. If a man has full-fledged male sex cells, there is every chance of successful fertilization.
Oligospermia responds well to complex buysteroidsuk therapy. Initially, the main factors of diseases leading to deterioration of sperm characteristics and decrease in the number of sperm cells are identified and eliminated. This is an example of a causal approach to treatment.
In a number of situations, when a doctor encounters an incurable form of oligozoospermia, for example, in the absence and underdevelopment of the testes, as well as during gene mutations, the patient is not prescribed therapeutic treatment. Such men do not experience any discomfort due to the insignificant concentration of male germ cells in the seminal fluid, and they can live a normal life.
Most men, when they become aware of the diagnosis, begin to treat the disease with drugs. It should be remembered that it is impossible to achieve a 100% positive effect from drug treatment, since drugs are often ineffective. Drug therapy of oligospermia gives a positive result when this pathology has an infectious nature.
When diseases of the genital organs of infectious-inflammatory genesis are detected in a patient, and it is proved that oligospermia has arisen as their consequence, they are usually prescribed:
- various types of antibiotics – for the treatment of inflammatory processes;
- vitamin preparations – to enhance immunity;
- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs – for effective pain relief.
If the problem persists, an in-depth diagnosis may be required; most likely, a venereologist will need advice. It is necessary to pass smears for bacteriological and virological research, pass inspection. Provided that the inflammatory processes in the prostate, testicles or other genitals of a man are cured, a course of hormone replacement therapy is prescribed by a doctor.
Treatment of folk remedies
Methods of traditional medicine are aimed at a comprehensive improvement of the key parameters of sperm, help prevent rapid ejaculation, increase the process of formation of sperm.
The main tasks that need to be addressed in the treatment of hypospermia:
- increase the volume of ejaculate (over 2 ml);
- increase the concentration of sermatozoids (more than 20 million per 1 ml of sperm);
- improve the quality of male germ cells (morphologically correct form and mobility).
As a rule, the methods of traditional medicine for the treatment of this pathology are based on the use of complexes of medicinal plants and bee products. But to recommend them to the attending physician.
For the prevention of oligospermia, methods are used to eliminate and neutralize the factors that cause pathological changes in spermograms.
You must adhere to the following basic rules:
- Giving the body regular exercise of sufficient tension. This allows you to increase the formation of testosterone, a positive effect on the endocrine, nervous and circulatory systems.
- Rational and proper nutrition has a general tonic effect, helps prevent endocrine disorders.
- It is necessary to control chronic diseases. Special attention should be paid to the urogenital system.
Experts say that successful treatment of oligospermia is quite possible. But at the same time, the treatment process is rather long. It must be borne in mind that the success of the therapy is ensured by the complex use of pharmaceuticals, the rational appointment of therapeutic procedures, the timely conduct of control laboratory studies. You also need to adhere to a healthy lifestyle, improve the diet.
The video file contains materials on the causes of infertility in men, its signs and methods of treatment.